FCC

Effectively manage unit performance flexibility, reliability, environmental impact and costs

In addition to our industry leading FCC process technology, UOP offers a complete portfolio of key equipment items that can improve unit capacity and efficiency and help you meet your processing objectives

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FCC Control Systems Maximize Performance and On-Stream Reliability

Emergency Interlock System

To protect the FCC unit during abnormal operation (power loss, equipment failure, etc.) and to assist the refiner with the automated shutdown of the catalyst section of the FCC unit, UOP developed the UOP FCC Emergency Interlock System (EIS). The UOP FCC EIS is an independent protection layer for the FCC process, designed to perform the following basic functions during an abnormal event:

  • Stop catalyst circulation
  • Clear the reactor riser
  • Remove hydrocarbon feed from the reactor
  • Place the regenerator and reactor system into a safe condition to permit a fast, safe re-start

Benefits to the FCC operator are:

  • Improved unit reliability, on-stream factor
  • Minimize lost production and overall refinery impact
  • Avoid equipment damage

To monitor key unit operating variables, the UOP FCC EIS is designed to integrate with the distributed control system (DCS), as well as other process and equipment interlock systems. Failures of the DCS will not interfere with the function of the UOP FCC EIS.

The typical UOP FCC EIS is supplied as a complete package consisting of Programmable Electronic Protection System and DCS Communication Interface. UOP also provides commissioning Spare Parts and conducts a Project Orientation Meeting at the contractor/refiner’s site to discuss project details and implementation parameters.

Please contact us for more information.

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Optimix Distributors Insure Effective Vaporization and Mixing

Feed Distribution

UOP Optimix feed distributors are used to atomize FCC feed and inject it into the conditioned catalyst in the reactor riser. Regardless of the feed quality or processing severity—a uniform and controlled catalyst environment and proper feed distribution are the keys to good mixing and quick vaporization of the raw oil feed in the FCC riser. For this reason, UOP’s feed distribution technology is focused on both the catalyst environment into which the feed is injected, and the feed distributor itself. UOP’s catalyst acceleration zone at the base of the reactor riser establishes a uniform catalyst environment of moderate velocity and density prior to feed injection. UOP then custom designs the Optimix Feed Distributors to deliver the optimal droplet size and distribution pattern to match these riser dynamics. Design details reflect feedstock composition and unit processing objectives.

Optimized catalyst/oil mixing and accelerations offer significant yield selectivity benefits to the FCC operator:

  • Higher conversion
  • Increased gasoline yield
  • Reduced dry gas and LPG production
  • Reduced delta coke

Other key benefits of UOP’s Optimix technology are lower investment costs, reduced steam consumption, long mechanical life, and high on-stream reliability. The latest Optimix (ER) outer tips utilize highly erosion resistant metallurgy and geometry to increase the mechanical reliability of the outer tips and thus increase operating life.

UOP has commissioned 100 Optimix installations worldwide with over 1000 years of cumulative onstream experience. Contact us to explore the best Optimix application for your FCC unit.

Please contact us for more information.

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Maximize FCC Catalyst Stripping Efficiency and Capacity

AF Stripper Technology

As a result of design modifications and/or capacity increase, the spent catalyst stripper in today’s FCC units frequently operates well above the original catalyst flux design value, compromising hydrocarbon displacement efficiency and unit performance. In response, UOP has developed Advanced fluidization spent catalyst stripping technology to improve the FCC unit yield performance and its catalyst circulation (hydraulic) performance.

UOP’s AF stripper internals bring improved performance by creating a superior fluidization and contacting regime throughout the entire stripper vessel. The AF stripper technology is a family of three distinct internals offerings:

  • AF trays
  • AF grids
  • AF packing

The performance within this family is similar and the optimal selection is dependent on the unique configuration of the unit, site constructability, and inspection issues. All offer simplified site installation and easy maintenance at turnarounds.

UOP AF Stripper technology offers significant benefits:

  • Lower delta coke operation
  • Lower regenerator temperature
  • Increased catalyst circulation (cat-to-oil ratio)
  • Lower dry gas yield
  • Higher conversion
  • Improved product selectivity to gasoline or light olefins
  • Improved efficiency (able to operate at catalyst fluxes between 30,000 and 140,000 lb/hr/ft2
  • Increased capacity using existing stripper vessel
  • Reduced steam requirement

UOP can further analyze your current stripping efficiency and show you how AF Stripping technology can increase your profitability and maximize your FCC unit’s potential.

Please contact us for further information.

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Achieve Reliable, Variable-Duty Heat Removal in Your FCC Unit

View Larger ImageCatalyst Cooler

The conversion of residual feedstock components in an FCC unit results in a higher operating temperature in the regenerator, impacting catalyst circulation, conversion, and overall selectivity. Regenerator heat removal is often desired to increases the catalyst-to-oil ratio for better yields, improve product selectivity, and enhance profitability. Historically, regenerator heat removal has been unreliable with mechanical and operability problems. To address these problems, UOP developed the UOP Catalyst Cooler.

The UOP FCC catalyst cooler is an external vertical shell-and-tube heat exchanger where catalyst flows over the entire cross sectional area of the tube bundle in the dense phase. UOP’s air lance distribution system ensures uniform air distribution within the tube bundle and a uniform heat transfer coefficient. The generation of steam (up to 850 psig) from the circulating water is used to remove heat from the regenerated catalyst. Three different styles of catalyst coolers, flowthrough, back-mix and hybrid, have been designed and commercialized to accommodate a wide range of heat removal duties as well as physical / plot space constraints.

Key features of the UOP catalyst cooler:

  • Vertical heat transfer surface: Provides uniform heat transfer and catalyst contact with the tube bundle, and reduces localized stresses resulting from uneven temperature distributions.
  • Variable heat-removal capability: Provides independent control of the units heat balance, helping to fine-tune unit performance with changes in feed compostion or processing objectives. Variable duty (minimum heat removal in this case) also facilitates FCC unit start-ups.
  • The cooler can even be shut down and effectively isolated while the FCC unit continues to operate if necessary.
  • Mechanical reliability: Is achieved through dense-phase operation with low catalyst velocity to reduce erosion.
  • Cooler shell is separate from regenerator vessel: Provides ultimate revamp flexibility plus easy, quick cooler maintenance or bundle replacement during turnarounds.

Benefits of UOP Catalyst Coolers

  • Improved conversion and yield selectivity – maximizing product revenue
  • Reduced feed stock costs
  • Variable heat removal capability – flexibility for different feedstocks
  • Mechanical reliability – maximizing on-stream factor

UOP can supply full coolers or tube bundle equipment packages that offer a single contact for detailed design, fabrication, shop inspection, and site services, offering reduced project schedules and superior quality assurance. UOP has commissioned 60 Catalyst Coolers.

Please contact us for more information.

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Cost-Effective Flue Gas Particulate Removal

Third Stage Separator

With the increasing demand on refiners around the world to decrease particulate emissions from the FCC stack, UOP recognized the need for a low cost alternative to the more expensive particulate removal technologies of wet gas scrubbing and electro-static precipitators. This need has been met with the commercialization in 2002 of the new UOP TSS. Applications include bypass applications around power recovery turbines or final stack particulate control. Relative to ESP’s, wet gas scrubbers, and barrier filters, UOP’s TSS design offers significantly lower capital cost with no utility consumption.

The UOP TSS takes FCC regenerator flue gas and passes it through a number of small diameter, high efficiency, cyclonic elements arranged in parallel and contained within the separator vessel. After the catalyst particulates are separated from the flue gas in the cyclones, the clean flue gas leaves the separator. A small stream of gas, called the underflow, exits the separator through the bottom of the separator vessel. In an environmental application the underflow is directed to an additional separation and collection stage before combining with the clean flue gas.

The new UOP TSS provides significant process, mechanical and cost advantages over other TSS designs:

  • Guaranteed particulate removal
  • 40% smaller in diameter relative to other TSS offerings – less expensive and smaller footprint
  • Shop fabrication and delivery to site with internals Installed – higher quality and minimum installation/turnaround time
  • Ease of maintenance – the UOP TSS is open, allowing access to the cyclone elements from both the top and bottom tube sheets, allowing full inspection and ease of maintenance.

UOP currently has 10 TSS units in operation, design, or fabrication.

Please contact us for further information.

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